Thursday, August 27, 2020

Understanding Perovskite Film Characterization Routes

Understanding Perovskite Film Characterization Routes Presentation: A perovskite sun illegal chamber is a sort out of sunshine based work area which merges a perovskite cool, quiet and gathered intensify, a decent number jar halide-based material, in a similar way the light-social outcome dynamic layer. Perovskite materials, for example, methylammonium lead halides are humble toward progress to as an outcome undemanding set out toward make. Sun based work area efficiencies of methodology with these provisions state boundless since 3.8% taking an interest in 2009 while in transit to 22.1% well known middle 2016. The last name perovskite sunlight based cell is gotten beginning the ABX3 costly gemstone establish of the consideration for materials, on the grounds that perovskite of structure. For the most part, on normal cautious perovskite protect is methylammonium head trihalide (CH3NH3PbX3, some place X is a halogen particle, utilized for example, iodine, bromine before chlorine), in addition to an optical bandgap inside the voting public of 1.5 in addition to 2.3 eV depending driving halide content. Formamidinum sign trihalide (H2NCHNH2PbX3) has besides shown guarantee, by methods for bandgaps in the circle of the region of 1.5 alongside 2.2 eV. The disreputable bandgap is prior toward the straighten out utilized for a different than methylammonium lead trihalide, accordingly it should happen all set rather than upper efficiencies. The essential waste going on perovskite light based gadget was famous a concealing document order by means of CsSnI3.. A dull concern is the breaker of direct, f or example, a touch of the perovskite materials; sun based cells during tin-based perovskite shields, in the interest of case, CH3NH3SnI3 experience in addition been spoken to in the organization of hand down limitation alter efficiencies . Outlines shows the vitality trade efficiencies of the perovskite-essentially based gadgets over late years obviously with emanant photovoltaic exploration improvement what's more customary meager film photovoltaics. Figure 1: Perovskite daylight hours basically based cells have stretched out in quality exchange ampleness at an amazing rate veered from different sorts of photovoltaics Perovskites are a gathering of assets with the end goal of stake an about like structure, which work a horde of lively properties in the way of superconductivity, magnetoresistance with the sky is a definitive start in order to point. These enough together supplies are seen similarly the karma of light based cells, since their express assembled causes them to refine for connecting with immaterial effort, beneficial photovoltaics. Figure 2: Pervoskite. a creation slight film PV class is being encased, in like way named third period PVs, which proposes PVs using propels that can overcome current abundancy and execution confines or rely upon novel materials. This third snapshot of PVs wires DSSC, standard photovoltaic (OPV), quantum bit (QD) PV and perovskite PV. A perovskite sun arranged cell is a type of sunshine based cell which combines a perovskite sifted through compound, most for presumably the most section a cross standard inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-social affair dynamic layer. Perovskite materials, for instance, methylammonium lead halides are unassuming to deliver and enormous a simple errand to fabricate. Perovskites have unavoidable properties like wide upkeep region, lively charge package, long vehicle separation of electrons and openings, long transporter division lifetime, which make them to a decent degree enabling materials for strong state sun arranged cells. Perovskite sun based absolutely cells want to develop the presentation and lower the estimation of sun based centrality. Perovskite PVs for without question keep guarantee for unreasonable efficiencies,.A essential supported perspective perovskite PVs has over favored sun oriented found headway is they can respond to different exact frequencies of gentle, which permits them to trade over an increasingly exceptional proportion of the light that gets in contact with them into power. Moreover, they offer adaptability, semi-straightforwardness, explicitly fitted part components, light-weight and that is as of now the beginning. Routinely, contraption originators and scientists are certain that such living arrangements will open up various additional bundles for sun orchestrated cells. One trouble is their favored cost , and each other is significantly less costly perovskite daylight hours based cells have a fast future. Perovskite PVs besides crush down quickly inside observing wetness and the ruin matters strike steel anodes. Overwhelming epitome to guarantee perovskite can transfer to the cellphone cost and weight. Scaling up is each other issue elite assessments were capable the utilization of little cells, that is incredible for lab giving it a shot, however excessively little to conceivably be utilized as somewhat of a genuine sun based board. An imperative issue is hazardous fine a substance known as PbI is one of the breakdown delayed consequences of perovskite. This is believed to be harmful and there are stresses that it very well may be ailment welcoming on .In like way, various perovskite cells use lead, a huge spoiling. Analysts are reliably endeavoring to discover replacements, and highlight formally made working cells the utilization of tin. Perovskite Fabrication: The structure underneath addresses a wellknown (non-balanced) perovskite sun orchestrated cell fundamentally dependent on a favored glass/ITO substrates with metallic again contact. This is required to shape a working gadget from the perovskite are two rate-explicit. A huge scope of the standard interface layers from the universe of typical photovoltaics work generally pleasantly. For instance, PEDOT:PSS and the PTAA-class of polymers capacity superbly as beginning interface layers, while PCBM, C60, ZnO and TiO2 makes persuading electron interfaces. Notwithstanding, the division is new to the point that there is an endless record of conceivable interface substances to be explored. Figure 3: structure of perovskite daylight based cell. 2. Portrayal of Perovskite: Material portrayal settle for a fundamental half in power wonder (PV) break down and is basic comprehend the breadth of most recent enhancements . A few frameworks from particles to groups ar starting at present available to settle on the structure and properties of PV materials, structures and gadgets. To comprehend compensation by local defects or likely coincidental destroying impacts, and in the occasion of crystalline materials, grain limit flaws and prompts cognizance of genuine cell efficiencies. The last portrayal are regularly accomplished just with a mix of new depiction approaches to consolidate the fundamental technique for portrayal. There are a few portrayal of perovskite sun powered cell, for example, XRD, SEM ,AFM ,KPFM ,Photo Celiv, impedance ,XPS/UPS and UV - VIS . 2.1. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Starting at presently high capacity thin film electrical happening sun composed cells apparatuses square measure being made in grouping of crystallographic traces: epitaxial, crystalline, straightforward or loose. Basic and microstructural boundaries of those gadgets square check prominently connected to the execution of the daylight consuming cell. Considering the wide degree of materials and structures utilized as fairly making the sun care oversaw cells there rectangular measure a general gathering of x-shaft optical pattern and scattering system and geometries which will be utilized for delineation of sun took care of cell gadget. XRD is partner degree in a circumstance non-unsafe assessment mechanical collection that offers quantitative information on the crystalline periods in slim film structures. Which has a savvy option of X-bar flexibly and optical genuine science, XRD assessment can be identified with a different variety of crystalline and crystalline materials utilized for PV. definitely once utilized as a lump of combination with compound evaluations, an isolated delineation of slender film structures will be conveyed. XRD techniques rely on after the scattering of X-columns by the particles in an exceedingly broken bundle, I. e., the cross-punch stage. astute diffusive happens once the stage separate between the dispersed surf from particles inside the cross-space planes is really a differed of 2, a sickness that is geometrically met when the technique length capability of the dissipated waves is unquestionably a rudimentary number of frequencies. The draw is finding the outline and pioneer at positi ons in house regarding the scene segment so optic wonder maxima will be recognized. entirely unexpected understandings, for instance, the turning significant stone framework, the Laue technique and afterward the powder procedure square measure thoroughly utilized for crystallographic investigation. varieties of the powder framework square measure used, having a powder or film outline lying digressively to a concentrating float spoke to by the parcel between the X-column flexibly emanant contrast and consequently the condition during this technique, a control generally ludicrous inside the diffracted surface is discovered when the connection between the image . The model is lit with a lightweight outflow x-bars on the variable objective broaden. Relationship inside the example brings with respect to diffracted x-pillars once the Bragg condition is culminated. happening spectra territory unit customary for man-made piece and stage. The strategy awfully gives level ID (e. g. co2 ), on-board stage estimating, the difficulties crystallinity, precious stone size and building square gauge. To get superimposed materials, Grazing Occurrence XRD (GIXRD) licenses integrative significance recognizable proof of stages inside the structure. Non-harming assessment with trademark verification of stage e. g. quartz/cristobalite/tridymite for silicon dioxide Stage examination, the difficulties crystallinity and

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Louis D Rubin On free essay sample

Louis D. Rubin On Ode To The Confederate Dead Essay, Research Paper Louis D. Rubin, Jr. That stanza structure is # 8216 ; about # 8217 ; solipsism, a philosophical way of thinking which says that we make the universe in the demonstration of understanding it ; or about Narcissism, or whatever other tenet that indicates the disappointment of the human character to work unbiasedly in nature and society. That stanza structure, as Tate proceeds to state about the Ode to the Confederate Dead, is other than about a grown-up male stopping at the entryway of a Confederate burial ground on a pre-winter evening. Along these lines the grown-up male at the cemetery and the Gravess in the memorial park become the image of the solipsism and the Self-love: Harvest time is demolition in the mystery plan Of a 1000 sections of land where these recollections develop From the boundless natural structures that are non Dead, however feed the grass push after rich column. Think about the fall that have traveled every which way! An image is something that represents something different. We will compose a custom exposition test on Louis D Rubin On or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page What I need to make is to show out a portion of the connections between the something and the something else. Richard Weaver has composed of the Nashville Agrarians that they experienced a distinctive kind of apprenticeship for their in the future works. They served the Muse of poesy. From a specific perspective that is valid, yet the word apprenticeship is misleading in Tate # 8217 ; s case. Allen Tate did non go a writer basically so as to larn the most effective method to be an Agrarian. He was a writer while he was an Agrarian ; he kept on being an artist after his particular inclusion in Agrarianism reduced, and now he has gotten a functioning communicant of the Roman Catholic Church and he is as yet a writer. One must take a firm stand that for Allen Tate poesy has neer been the apprenticeship for anything with the exception of poesy. Figure to yourself a grown-up male stopping at the entryway of a Confederate burial ground. . . , Tate writes in his paper Narcissus as Narcissus. He proceeds: . . . he delays for a churrigueresque hypothesis on the ravagings of clasp, prevailing upon the figure of the # 8216 ; daze crab. # 8217 ; This creature has versatility yet no chance, vitality however from the human purpose of position, no deliberate universe to use it in. . . . The crab is the first trace of the idea of the ethical battle whereupon the play of the refrain structure creates: the cut-off-ness of the cutting edge # 8216 ; sane grown-up male # 8217 ; from the universe. The savage miracle of a blessed messenger # 8217 ; s gaze Turns you, similar to them, to lapidate, Changes the hurl air Till dove into a heavier universe beneath You switch your ocean space indiscriminately Hurling, turning like the visually impaired crab. On the off chance that the Confederate Ode depends on an ethical battle influencing the cut-off-ness of the cutting edge # 8216 ; sane grown-up male # 8217 ; from the universe, for what reason did Tate pick as his image the Confederate graveyard? The answer lies in the historical backdrop of the part in which Allen Tate and his kindred Fugitives and Agrarians grew up. Tate was conceived and raised in the Upper South, and he went to school in Nashville, Tennessee, and at that spot was an imagery in the South of his twenty-four hours cook for the solicitation. It was the complexity, and battle, between what the South was and customarily had been, and what it was be givening toward. With the war of 1914-1918 the South reemerged the universe, Tate has composed, # 8212 ; however gave a regressive look as it ventured over the limit line: that retrogressive impression gave us the Southern Renaissance, a writing aware of the days gone by in the present. What kind of state was the South whereupon Tate and his coevalss of the early 1920s glanced back at each piece great as saw around them? It was first of every one of the a state with impressive authentic cognizance, with rather all the more inclination for custom and habits than existed somewhere else in the state. There had been a common war just a little over a 50 years prior, and the South had been seriously beaten. A while later Southern pioneers chosen to copy the methods of the vanquisher, and required a New South of metropoliss and factories. Such Southern erudite people as there were obliged the procedure. Work power of letters like Walter Hines Page and John Spencer Bassett lectured that one time the provincialism of the Southern author was misled, and the Southern grown-up male of letters was ready to cover Appomattox Court House and Chickamauga, so Southern writing would come into its ain. At the point when it came to computing an artistic Renaissance in the South. Bassett furthermore, his companions were impeccably right, yet they could non hold been progressively misinformed about the signifier that it would take. What achieved the Renaissance # 8212 ; what there was in the cut and topographic point that made conceivable an Allen Tate and a William Faulkner and a Donald Davidson and a John Ransom and a Robert Penn Warren and an Andrew Lytle and three twelve other Southern creators # 8212 ; was non the excited eagerness to primate the methods of the Modern East, yet rather the repulsiveness against the need of holding to make so in request to populate among their kindred Southerners. By 1920 and thereupon the South was changing, with the goal that Tate # 8217 ; s present day Southerner remaining at the door of a Confederate military burial ground had to look at what John Spencer Bassett had one time named the well used out musings of a dismissed framework with what had supplanted that framework. What's more, what had taken its topographic point was what Tate and his individual Agrarians have been yelling out against ever since: the mechanical. financially disapproved of present day civilisation, in which confidence and custom and convention and request were rapidly being supplanted by the love of gaining and dispensing. In this manner the Confederate graveyard as the crossroads for solipsism, and the disappointment of the human character to work unbiasedly in nature and society, on the grounds that for Tate there could be no request about where the youthful Southern creator should remain in the undertaking. The horticultural network that had been the Southern way of life was with all its botches gigantically liked to what was taking topographic point now. As he wrote in 1936, the Southern grown-up male of letters can non permit himself to view the old framework from a carefully cultural purpose of position, or from the financial position ; to him it must look better than the framework that annihilated it, better, exorbitantly, than any framework with which the advanced contrivers, Marxian or any shading, wish to supplant the current request. Studying the brave days gone by what's more, the unfilled these days, the youthful Southerner could only experience himself in disconnection from what were presently his part # 8217 ; s ways. In the expressions of the Confederate Ode, What will we state who tally our yearss and bow Our caputs with a commemorial languishing In the ribboned layers of inflexible aptness, What will we say to the castanetss, grimy, Whose verdurous anonymity will turn? The worn out weaponries, the battered caputs and eyes Lost in these homes of the crazy viridity? The dark slender insects come, they go back and forth ; In a knot of willows without noticeable radiation The wonderful shriek owl # 8217 ; s tight Imperceptible verse seeds the head With the fierce murmur of their chivalry. We will state just the foliages Flying, plunge and terminate We will state just the foliages murmuring In the impossible fog of sundown That flies on numerous wing. . . . We are, that is, insufficient, cut off, stray ; we can non even consider how it was. All we can see is the foliages blowing about the tombstones. So Mr. Tate # 8217 ; s present day Southerner felt. The Ode to the Confederate Dead dates from around 1926, and that was the twelvemonth, Tate reviews, that he and john Crowe Ransom started tarrying with the idea of making something about the Southern situation, an endeavor which in a matter of seconds prompted programs for the book entitled I # 8217 ; ll Take My Stand, wherein Tate, Ransom, and ten different Southerners put forward Agrarian supporters for what they felt was a continuously industrialized, continuously deceived South. The cardinal articulation was expressed in the first section of the presentation, which Ransom created and to which all the members gave quiet submission: All the articles bear in a similar sense upon the book # 8217 ; s title-subject: all will in general back up a Southern way of life as against what might be known as the American or, prevailing way ; and all every piece much as concur that the best footings in which to represent the separation are contained in the expression, Agrarian versus Industrial. The activity that the 12 Agrarians felt stood up to the cutting edge South was the equivalent work, in this way, as that which Mr. Tate # 8217 ; s present day grown-up male at the graveyard entryway confronted. What's more, in a extremely clear sense, I # 8217 ; ll Take My Stand spoke to their suggestions for a arrangement, in a particular clasp and topographic point, of the cardinal good activity of the Ode to the Confederate Dead. The Agrarians proclaimed in their conference that industrialism was ravaging, in that it depended on a build of nature as something to be utilized. In so making, industrialism tossed grown-up male out of his legitimate relationship to nature, and to God whose inventive movement it was. The Agrarian wrangle, they pronounced, was with applied logical control, which in the signifier of modern industrialist economy had as its item the bondage of h

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay Sample is Higher Education Worth the Price

Essay Sample is Higher Education Worth the Price Is Higher Education Worth the Price? May 31, 2019 in Argumentative Essay Outline In the article of Senior Associate Editor Gillian White published in The Atlantics and titled It Still Pays Off, the author asserts that the value of college education still has its advantages. Despite the fact that Whites opening paragraph as well as the title present both an optimistic and positive picture regarding the benefits of getting a college degree, it can be genuinely ascertained that the optimism is somewhat reduced in the final paragraphs. It can be asserted that the beginning and end of Whites article are not actually consistent with each other and, therefore, they do not present corresponding argument (Brody, 1). Through the use of the Earnings Graph, White argues that college graduates are better than experienced high school ones. Whites assertions are further proved by the Georgetown Research Professor who also argues that a college degree is actually worth the price and asserts that is still worth it... it is just that people cant afford it... The fact that college education is worth the price is further reflected in Sanford Ungars essay, in which similarly to White, Ungar also asserts that College education is actually worth it. White further argues that ...even with debt, College still pays off...

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Media Is A Mirror Of Society, And If That Society Is

The media is a mirror of society, and if that society is by any means influenced by stereotypes, the media will reflect it. Advertising, according to Erving Goffman, author of the book Gender Advertising, depicts how men and women behave as a social purpose and how today’s social purpose is highly unbalanced in men’s favor. Some people say that advertisers should be held accountable for the unethical images they present. Others, however, say that consumers should be to blame because by buying the products being advertised they are, in fact, supporting the advertisers and the images they set forth. The solution to this issue is simple: If these gender messages are ever expected to change, consumers should stop supporting advertising†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, the bank accounts of these industries continue to multiply. The first reason consumers should stop supporting advertising agencies that portray women as sex objects rather than subjects is that these unequal advertisements, in fact, do create a negative effect on society and gender relationships, especially at the subconscious level. Katherine Toland Frith, author of the essay, â€Å"Advertising and Mother Nature,† published in the book Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Media: Global Diversities, addresses this issue by saying that advertisements shape the human consciousness and reflect the values and morals of the underlying ethical system. She states that media advertising is a â€Å". . .strong marketing tool and cultural artifact. We must move beyond the surface message of the products and services for sale and explore the deeper, underlying meanings of advertisers. . .† (185). In other words, buyers and consumers in the market must be aware of inequality in the media. Vivian Gornick agrees with Toland Frith in her intro to Erving Goffman’s Gender Advertisements. She explains how advertisements are merely a creative documentation of a highly-manipulated representation of â€Å"real life† for the viewer (xii). Consumers must live and construct their own sense of reality consciously and cannot depend on what the media feeds them as the truth. Another reason that it is necessary to stop support of these industries is because stereotyped imagesShow MoreRelatedThe Media Machine Is A Delusion1331 Words   |  6 Pagesin The Influencing Machine, â€Å"The media machine is a delusion. What we’re really dealing with is a mirror: an exalting, degrading, tedious, and transcendent funhouse mirror of America† (Gladstone xxi). It often goes unnoticed how frequently the media reflects America as if it were a mirror. Popular culture, television, and nearly every social media platform essentially showcases a mirror of American society as a whole. 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However, this ever-expanding market has society curious purely based off of the inherent restrictions of the zombie population. When looking into all aspects surrounding the zombie culture, it becomes obvious that oneRead MoreThink Of A Beautiful, Ten-Year-Old Girl Standing In The1281 Words   |  6 Pagesten-year-old girl standing in the mirror, clutching her stomach and tears rolling down her cheeks because she is being teased for not being as skinny as the other girls in her class. She looks at the models on TV and envies their skinniness. She wants to look just like them. At ten years old, she starts running after dinner and not eating as much as she use to eat. That beautiful little girl is just like every woman all over the world; she is pressured t o by the media to have a â€Å"perfect body.’ Women

Thursday, May 14, 2020

A Historical Timeline Evolution of the TV(1831-1996)

Television was not invented by a single inventor, instead of many people working together and alone over the years, contributed to the evolution of television. 1831 Joseph Henrys and Michael Faradays work with electromagnetism jumpstarts the era of electronic communication. 1862: First Still Image Transferred Abbe Giovanna Caselli invents his Pantelegraph and becomes the first person to transmit a still image over wires. 1873 Scientists May and Smith experiment with selenium and light, this reveals the possibility for inventors to transform images into electronic signals. 1876 Boston civil servant George Carey was thinking about complete television systems and in 1877 he put forward drawings for what he called a selenium camera that would allow people to see by electricity. Eugen Goldstein coins the term cathode rays to describe the light emitted when an electric current was forced through a vacuum tube. The Late 1870s Scientists and engineers like Paiva, Figuier, and Senlecq were suggesting alternative designs for Telectroscopes. 1880 Inventors Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison theorize about telephone devices that transmit image as well as sound. Bells Photophone used light to transmit sound and he wanted to advance his device for image sending. George Carey builds a rudimentary system with light-sensitive cells. 1881 Sheldon Bidwell experiments with his Telephotography that was similar to Bells Photophone. 1884: 18 Lines of Resolution Paul Nipkow sends images over wires using a rotating metal disk technology calling it the electric telescope with 18 lines of resolution. 1900: And We Called It Television At the Worlds Fair in Paris, the first International Congress of Electricity was held. That is where Russian Constantin Perskyi made the first known use of the word television. Soon after 1900, the momentum shifted from ideas and discussions to the physical development of television systems. Two major paths in the development of a television system were pursued by inventors. Inventors attempted to build mechanical television systems based on  Paul Nipkows  rotating disks orInventors attempted to build  electronic television systems  based on the  cathode ray  tube developed independently in 1907 by English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton and Russian scientist Boris Rosing. 1906: First Mechanical Television System Lee de Forest invents the Audion vacuum tube that proved essential to electronics. The Audion was the first tube with the ability to amplify signals. Boris Rosing combines Nipkows disk and a cathode ray tube and builds the first working mechanical TV system. 1907: Early Electronic Systems Campbell Swinton and Boris Rosing suggest using  cathode ray tubes  to transmit images. Independent of each other, they both develop electronic scanning methods of reproducing images. 1923 Vladimir  Zworykin  patents his  iconoscope  a TV camera tube based on Campbell Swintons ideas. The  iconoscope, which he called an electric eye becomes the cornerstone for further television development.  Zworkin  later develops the kinescope for picture display (aka the  receiver). 1924-25: First Moving Silhouette Images American  Charles Jenkins  and  John Baird  from Scotland, each demonstrate the mechanical transmissions of images over wire circuits. John Baird  becomes the first person to transmit moving silhouette images using a mechanical system based on Nipkows disk. Charles Jenkin  built his Radiovisor and 1931 and sold it as a kit for consumers to put together (see photo to right). Vladimir  Zworykin  patents a  color television  system. 1926-30: Lines of Resolution John Baird  operates a television system with 30 lines of resolution system running at 5 frames per second. 1927 Bell Telephone  and the U.S. Department of Commerce conducted the first long-distance use of television that took place between Washington D.C. and New York City on April 7th. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover commented, â€Å"Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world’s history. Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in new respect, and in a manner hitherto unknown.† Philo Farnsworth, files for a patent on the first completely electronic television system, which he called the Image Dissector. 1928 The Federal Radio Commission issues the first television station license (W3XK) to  Charles Jenkins. 1929 Vladimir Zworykin  demonstrates the first practical electronic system for both the transmission and reception of images using his new kinescope tube. John Baird  opens the first TV studio, however, the image quality was poor. 1930 Charles Jenkins  broadcasts the first TV commercial. The BBC begins regular TV transmissions. 1933 Iowa State University (W9XK) starts broadcasting twice-weekly television programs in cooperation with radio station WSUI. 1936 About 200 hundred television sets are in use worldwide. The introduction of coaxial cable, which is a pure copper or copper-coated wire surrounded by insulation and aluminum covering. These cables were and are used to transmit television, telephone, and data signals. The first experimental coaxial cable lines were laid by ATT between New York and Philadelphia in 1936. The first regular installation connected Minneapolis and Stevens Point, WI in 1941. The original L1 coaxial-cable system could carry 480 telephone conversations or one television program. By the 1970s, L5 systems could carry 132,000 calls or more than 200 television programs. 1937 CBS begins its TV development. The BBC begins high definition broadcasts in London. Brothers and Stanford researchers Russell and Sigurd Varian introduce the Klystron. A Klystron is a high-frequency amplifier for generating microwaves. It is considered the technology that makes UHF-TV possible because it gives the ability to generate the high power required in this spectrum. 1939 Vladimir Zworykin  and RCA conduct experimentally broadcasts from the  Empire State Building. Television was demonstrated at the New York Worlds Fair and the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition. RCAs David Sarnoff used his companys exhibit at the 1939 Worlds Fair as a showcase for the 1st Presidential speech (Roosevelt) on television and to introduce RCAs new line of television receivers, some of which had to be coupled with a radio if you wanted to hear the sound. The Dumont company starts making tv sets. 1940 Peter Goldmark invents 343 lines of the resolution  color television  system. 1941 The FCC releases the NTSC standard for black and white TV. 1943 Vladimir Zworykin  developed a better camera tube called the Orthicon. The Orthicon (see photo right) had enough light sensitivity to record outdoor events at night. 1946 Peter Goldmark, working for CBS, demonstrated his  color television  system to the FCC. His system produced color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a  cathode ray tube. This mechanical means of producing a color picture was used in 1949 to broadcast medical procedures from Pennsylvania and Atlantic City hospitals. In Atlantic City, viewers could come to the convention center to see broadcasts of operations. Reports from the time noted that the realism of seeing surgery in color caused more than a few viewers to faint. Although Goldmarks mechanical system was eventually replaced by an electronic system he is recognized as the first to introduce a broadcasting  color television  system. 1948 Cable television  is introduced in Pennsylvania as a means of bringing television to rural areas. A patent was granted to Louis W. Parker for a low-cost television receiver. One million homes in the United States have television sets. 1950 The FCC approves the first  color television  standard which is replaced by a second in 1953. Vladimir Zworykin  developed a better camera tube called the Vidicon. 1956 Ampex introduces the first practical  videotape  system of broadcast quality. 1956 Robert Adler  invents the first practical  remote control  called the Zenith Space Commander. It was proceeded by wired remotes and units that failed in sunlight. 1960 The first split screen broadcast occurs on the Kennedy - Nixon debates. 1962 The All-Channel Receiver Act requires that UHF tuners (channels 14 to 83) be included in all sets. 1962 A joint international collaboration between ATT, Bell Labs, NASA, British General Post Office, the French National Post, Telegraph, and Telecom Office results in the development and launch of  Telstar, the first satellite to carry TV broadcasts - broadcasts are now internationally relayed. 1967 Most TV broadcasts are in color. 1969 July 20, first TV transmission from the moon and 600 million people watch. 1972 Half the TVs in homes are color sets. 1973 Giant screen projection TV is first marketed. 1976 Sony introduces  Betamax, the first home video cassette recorder. 1978 PBS becomes the first station to switch to all satellite delivery of programs. 1981: 1,125 Lines of Resolution NHK demonstrates HDTV with 1,125 lines of resolution. 1982 Dolby  Surround  Sound for home sets is introduced. 1983 Direct Broadcast Satellite begins service in Indianapolis, In. 1984 Stereo TV broadcasts approved. 1986 Super VHS introduced. 1993 Closed captioning required on all sets. 1996 The FCC approves ATSCs HDTV standard. A billion TV sets worldwide.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Queen Of Hearts, By Lewis Carroll - 880 Words

†§ The Queen of Hearts in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is a nonsense novel created by Lewis Carroll in 1865. The story begins with Alice follows a clothed rabbit to a rabbit hole. She goes to a couple bazaar places and meets talking animals. In chapter eight, Alice encounters three playing cards painting the white roses into red because The Queen of Hearts hates white roses. She is a character who always angry and yells â€Å"Off with their heads!† She invites Alice to play croquet with live flamingos as mallets and the hedgehogs as balls. In chapter eleven, Alice attends a trial because the Knave of Hearts is accused of stealing the Queen’s tarts. Meanwhile, Alice is growing larger steadily. She refuses to leave and tells the Queen and King they are just a pack of cards. The story end in Alice’s sister woke her up from the dream. Lewis Carroll once stated that the Queen of Hearts is ‘the concentrated essence of all governess’. (Nichols, 2014) In the Walt Disneyà ¢â‚¬â„¢s animation version, the Alice describes the Queen of Hearts as a ‘fat, pompous, bad tempered old tyrant’. (Grant, 1987) Also, in Alice’s Wonderland A visual Journey through Lewis Carroll’s Mad, Mad World, Nichols mentioned that Miranda Richardson, the actress who played the Queen of Hearts in 1999 small screen version, made the character into a real mad and arbitrary woman. (Nichols, 2014) John Tenniel, the first illustrator of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, took VictorianShow MoreRelatedThe Theme Of Anti-Feminism In Alices Adventures In Wonderland1558 Words   |  7 Pagesdominate and have control over women. Lewis Carroll proves this fact through a young and innocent heroine’s journey with the reoccurring themes of anti-feminism, unequal treatment of women, and the gender roles dictated by society. In the fantasy novel, Alice s Adventures in Wonderland, written by Lewis Carroll, there are numerous occasions where power inequalit y between men and women are profound through the female characters - Alice, the Duchess, and the Queen of Hearts. To begin with, Alice, theRead MoreA Pen Name Lewis Carroll1429 Words   |  6 PagesAbout the author Charles Dodgson’s also known by his pen name Lewis Carroll was born January 27, 1892 in Daresbury, Cheshire England, and died in 1898 at Guildford, Surrey. He was raised in the country where he was the oldest of eight siblings. He began writing at an early age, mostly as entertainment for his younger siblings. Carroll had physical deformities, partial deafness and a stutter that limited him in throughout his life. Carroll had strict religious beliefs, and attended the Anglican ChurchRead MoreCurious Appetites : Food, Desire, Gender, And Subjectivity938 Words   |  4 Pages In the article â€Å"Curious Appetites: Food, Desire, Gender, and Subjectivity in Lewis Carroll’s Alice Texts,† Carina Garland takes on a classic childhood book and author. She enlightens the reader on the gender aspects behind the Lewis Carroll books Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There. Garland utilizes the knowledge of Carrollâ⠂¬â„¢s peculiar and slightly grotesque history of relationships with prepubescent girls and abhorrence of women, linked withRead MoreLewis Carroll: A Brief Biography785 Words   |  3 PagesLewis Carroll Lewis Carroll was born on January 27, 1832 in Daresbury, England. His real name is Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, but is known by his pseudonym Lewis Carroll. His mother was Frances Jane Lutwidge and Father was Charles Dodgson and he had a grandfather named Charles Dodgson who was an Army Captain. Lewis Carroll’s father was the Bishop of Elphin. He was the eldest son and third child in a family of seven girls and four boys. In 1846 his education began at a rugby school in Warwickshire,Read MoreAnalysis Of The Book Alice s Adventures 1293 Words   |  6 PagesAlice’s Adventures in Wonderland is a novel by Charles Dodgson, better known under the pseudonym of Lewis Carroll to his readers. Published in 1865, the novel centers around a young girl’s lively adventures in a fantastical dream world. She falls into this world after she sees a rabbit with a pocket watch and waistcoat running through her yard and then follows him down a rabbit hole. Although marketed as a c hildren’s story, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland has remained a mainstay with childrenRead MoreAlice s Adventures : A Satire1132 Words   |  5 Pagescards are just some of the un-natural occurrences that take place in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. In today’s society with competing books, such as Harry Potter, these elements in the book may seem like no big deal, but for the time period the book was published, these were anything but normal. This children’s book was first published in 1865 in the United Kingdom; during the Victorian time period, named after Queen Victoria. The book, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland represents aRead MoreAlices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll2354 Words   |  9 Pagesis Charles Lutwidge Dodgson also known as Lewis Carroll. Lewis is acknowledged as one of the best writers that have ever lived; he is also well appreciated in the English culture. Carroll was born on January 27, 1832, in Morphany Lane in the village of Daresbury England. Carroll was the third oldest son of the Reverend Charles Dodgson and Frances Jane Lutwidge. Carroll belonged to a family of eleven children where he was the third oldest. Lewis Carroll childhood was pleasant. He was always fullRead MoreLewis Carroll s Alice s Adventures1432 Words   |  6 Pages Lewis Carroll s â€Å"Alice s Adventures in Wonderland and Though the Looking-Glass are classics of the English language, Vying with the Bible and William Shakespeare as source of quotation(Blake, Kathleen 112).† Lewis Carroll s Alice s Adventures in Wonderland has always been a favorite for many children since it came out. It also has been interesting for any adult that has read it. Lewis Carroll is a literary genius even though he wrote plenty of nonsense. Born on Janurry 27, 1832, Lewis CarrolRead MoreJohn Charles Lutwidge Dodgson s The Looking Glass 1366 Words   |  6 Pages Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, best known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, has written many novels, poems, and short stories in his lifetime but his most famous for his children s ?nonsense? novels: Alice s Adventures in Wonderland and the sequel Through the Looking Glass. His works, especially the two mentioned, have influenced countless readers over the years, and references to his writings can be found in every type of media from the song ?White Rabbit? by Jefferson Airplane to the the MatrixRead MoreCriticisms of Victorian Society in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Caroll1078 Words   |  4 Pagescriticized through Alice’s experiences in Wonderland. Lewis Carroll indirectly incorporates his views of society into his book. The three main aspects that are criticized are Victorian Education, Victorian Government, and Victorian C lasses. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Animal Testing (1822 words) Essay Example For Students

Animal Testing (1822 words) Essay Animal TestingThis theme song to a popular cartoon is a farce dealing with experiments carried out on animals. In the cartoon one mouse is made very smart and wants to take over the world while the other is clearly not as smart. While the cartoon makes jokes, the reality is that mice and other animals re being used for medical tests every day. For some people this testing brings up ethical questions. One of the biggest questions: is it really necessary to take the lives of animals in the name of science and for the betterment of humanity? For animal rights activists, like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the answer is no. PETA pressures labs into halting experiments because they believe that animals are not to be used by humans for food, clothing, entertainment, or to experiment on (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals 1). Its stance is that any testing is painful, inhumane, and unnecessary when alternatives are available. The PETA website says that animals, like humans, have interests that cannot be sacrificed or traded away simply because it might benefit others. (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals 2-3). Essentially, PETA is of the opinion that animals and humans should have identical rights. In their press releases PETA puts out pictures of rabbits with open flesh wounds and dogs with rashes on their skinsall in an attempt to disgust people into sympathy for their cause. In actuality the number of lab animals used has been cut in half in the last 25 years (James-Enger 254). Of the animals used, 90 percent are rats and mice (James-Enger 1). Moreover, 11 million animals die each year in animal shelters (Americans for Medical Progress 2) and an astounding 95 percent of the animals that die in America do so from human consumption (James-Enger 254). The reason that animal testing is appropriate is that there are regulations in place to minimize testing and pain, the alternatives are insufficient for now, and most importantly the information obtained from experimentation is irreplaceable. While animal rights groups such as PETA advocate abolishing all animal testing that inflicts pain on animals, proponents of testing cite laws and regulations which minimize pain and discomfort. PETAs position is based on the belief that humans are not superior to animals (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). The vice president of the Humans Society of the United States (HSUS), an animal rights group that is nearly as extreme as PETA, has been quoted as saying the life of an ant and that of my child should be granted equal consideration (Americans for Medical Progress 2). If, as PETA and HSUS say, animal and human life is equal, then putting an animal through any pain is immoral. However, there are laws in place to minimize discomfort and inhumane treatment. The laws limit the amount of distress and pain an animal is subjected to. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the body that governs animal test ing, must approve all tests (United States Department of Agriculture 2). The USDA must also authorize the numbers and types of animals experimented on (United States Department of Agriculture 2). Tests can no longer be performed if conclusive data is already available. In 1991 it was discovered that Procter and Gamble had performed experiments on 300 guinea pigs when the data the tests was to obtain was already available (Animal Testing by the Cosmetic Industry 2). This is just one of the situations that newer animal testing legislation would have prevented or at least deterred. A fifty-point criterion for assessing pain is in place (United States Department of Agriculture 3). These points include everything from vocalization of pain to apparent depression. If there is no clear criteria then it is assumed that procedures that cause pain in humans also cause pain in animals (United States Department of Agriculture 50). When an animal must be restrained it is to be limited to brief pe riods of around three minutes (United States Department of Agriculture 3). This is similar to the procedure followed when a doctor holds a child to administer a vaccination shot. For all surgeries and painful tests, sedatives and anesthetics must be utilized (United States Department of Agriculture 49). If the test will leave the animal permanently damaged, euthanasia must be administered before the anesthetic wears off (United States Department of Agriculture 48). For humans this topic is still being debated, but animals are put to sleep every day when an owner or veterinarian decides the quality of the animals life will be too low for it to go on living. These few but important changes in animal research legislation have aided in improving animal welfare. PETA believes that the benefits of animal research do not outweigh the costs when alternatives are available; proponents argue that those alternatives are not effective. PETAs stance is that animal life is too valuable to risk on experimentation especially when there are alternatives, such as false human skin grown in culture, computer programs, and using human subjects. Taking a few skin cells and growing them into small squares of skin produces the false human skin. This piece of skin can be used to test irritation reactions to different chemicals. It is being used in the cosmetic industry, which has all but ceased animal testing. One problem with the false skin however is that it can only be exposed to water-soluble chemicals or it suffers extreme damage (D.E. 168). Furthermore, it currently contains no melanocytes, the chemicals that give skin its color, or immune cells (D.E. 168). It is not known how or if these substances effect any laboratory setting, but it is desirable for any experiment to mimic real life situations as closely as possible. Another alternative to actual animal experimentation is using computer simulations. These programs are like encyclopedias of chemical information. They can only run simulations based on information on chemicals and reactions that are already known. This is an obvious problem with this alternative. Computer simulation software cannot accurately predict the effects of enough situations and theoretical chemical combinations to be heavily relied on. What it comes down to is that there currently is no viable replacement for live, responsive cells. Jack H. Botting and Adrian R. Morrison point out that there are no basic differences between the physiology of laboratory animals and humans (Botting, Morrison 85). These similarities are what scientists need for experiments to be accurate. The matches are never perfect, but animal experiments are a good place for researchers to start looking for answers to questions that are important to human health care. Another proposed alternative to animal testing is to use human subjects. PETA suggests using people who have particular ailments who would be willing to participate in experiments. The problem with this alternative is that it is not scientifically sound. When conducting a scientific experiment, all variables must be controlled, and running tests on random human subjects does not give reliable results. Assuming that a researcher could find enough people to run an experiment, there would be too many extraneous variables, such as the subjects environment, genes, and other pre-existing conditions. With lab animals the complete medical history is known, the entire life of each animal is documented. Also they are selectively bred to produce genetically similar subjects. Simply put, lab animals are a cheap, reliable source of information. The benefits gained from animal testing are too widespread to ignore. Everyday life has been changed for the better because of this testing. As 1990 Nobel Prize Laureate Joseph E. Murray, M.D. said, Animal experimentation has been essential to the development of all cardiac surgery, transplantation surgery, joint replacements and all vaccinations ( Americans for Medical Progress 1). The numbers to back up this claim are that over 440,000 open-heart surgeries are performed and 11,000 kidneys are transplanted every year, not to mention that animal experimentation has made possible the salvation of 20,000 kidney dialysis patients each year (Botting 1). Also, the ability to test on animals has made possible the relatively safe and successful use of dangerous chemotherapy drugs to treat cancer (Americans for Medical Progress 1). Drugs such as this cannot be tested on humans because of their strength and potential for killing in inappropriate doses. If the proper dosage were not known, the results would be inaccurate and could be lethal. Many antibiotics and vaccines used today were developed and tested through animal research, as were insulin to control diabetes and nearly all modern anesthetics (Botting 1). It is hard to imagine life without some of these lifesaving drugs, or even the ones that do not save lives, just make life a little more bearable. It is likewise significant to note that animal testing has benefited animals as well. When a pet owner takes his or her animal to the veterinarian to receive shots, chances are that those shots are available because of animal experimentation. Heartworm, feline leukemia, rabies, anthrax, and tetanus are all preventable because of animal testing. PETA and HSUS are honorable institutions with admirable goals, but they are over idealistic and overzealous. That fact can best be described by the following quote: Animal rights activists blocked for two years research aimed at stopping transmission of HIV from mother to child. That research ultimately demonstrated how AZT can prevent babies from getting AIDS (Americans for Medical Progress). Sometimes the good of the many outweighs the good of the few. This does not mean that animal testing should go unchecked. Suffering is kept to a minimum by legislation and advancements in testing alternatives. As these alternatives progress, the number of live animals needed for testing will gradually decrease and eventually the need for them will hopefully be eliminated. But in the meantime, animal testing is too important to stop. The benefits waiting to be had are too important and any possible drawbacks are too insignificant to allow a halt in animal research. BibliographyBibliographyAnimal Testing by the Cosmetic Industry. (20 March 1999). Animal Research Saves Human and Animal Lives. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). Animal Research Holds the Key to Saving Human Lives. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). Ball, Matt and Anne Green, and Jack Norris. Veganism as the Path to Animal Liberation. The Animals Agenda Sep/Oct 1998: 44-45. Botting, Jack H. and Adrian R. Morrison. Animal Research is Vital to Medicine. Scientific American. 187 February 1997: 83-85. D. E. Skin Stand-Ins. Scientific American. September 1990: 168. James-Enger, Kelly. Beyond Animal Testing. Vegetarian Times. October 1998: 254. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (20 March 1999). 21 Things You May Not Know About the Animal Rights Movement. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1997. .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .postImageUrl , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:hover , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:visited , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:active { border:0!important; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:active , .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1 .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u867ffc0f5aea920fd0e881ad732f71e1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Wait Essay